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SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

SRI Petrography ID: 2

Names

[de] SEDIMENTGESTEINE
[en] SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Description

Sedimentary rocks are formed at or near the Earth's surface by precipitation from solution at surface temperatures or by accumulation and lithification of fragments of preexisting rocks, minerals or remains of organisms. For the transition from sediments to sedimentary rocks geological processes like compaction and/or cementation are necessary.
On the Earth’s surface sedimentary rocks are very common, especially sandstones, but also carbonates, on the other hand sedimentary rocks are only a minor constituent of the entire crust.
Characteristic for sedimentary rocks is their sedimentary facies and texture: they usually show banking as well as other characteristic structures like bedding. Each layer of a sedimentary rock reflects the conditions during deposition: the source material (often containing organisms, like mussels, brachiopods, etc., being present in the sedimentary rock by their shells or ichnia) and the means of transport.
Sedimentary rocks, types:
- clastic and siliciclastic sediments
- carbonates
- non-clastic sedimentary rocks
- non-carbonate-salt-rocks: they often do not show the typical sedimentary texture and are mostly massive rocks.
Contrary to sedimentary rocks most metamorphic rocks show typical metamorphic texture (banding, foliation, layering) and igneous rocks usually show no orientation of their grains.

Color

variable

Grain Size

Coarse grained, fine grained, brecciated, but also massive, depending on type

Texture

variable, often banked, often sedimentary structures like bedding, cross-bedding,…

Minerals

variable, most common:
quartz, feldspar, calcite, clay minerals

Occurences

all over the world

Classification

Narrower Terms

carbonate sedimentary rocks

clastic sedimentary rocks

non clastic silica-rich sedimentary rocks

non-carbonate salts

siliciclastic sedimentary rocks